A peristaltic pump works by pressure and displacement. It is used mainly to pump liquids through a tube, which is different than most other pumps in which parts of the pump actually come into direct contact with the liquid. It is one of the most common types of tools used to pump liquids, especially in medical settings. Because the mechanical workings of the pump never come into contact with the fluid directly, it has a number of uses, especially in situations where sterile fluids are required.

A peristaltic pump operates by allowing fluids into a hose. The fluid then flows into the pump casing through the hose. Once there, a rotor with a number of rollers compresses the tube forcing the liquid on through the pump and directing it to its final destination. This technique is known as peristalsis. Thus, the tool is called a peristaltic pump.

Often, when using a peristaltic pump, the fluids must be kept in a pure environment. Therefore, the hoses must always contain the same fluid. However, this does not necessarily limit the functioning of the pump, because the hoses can be switched out. This is often done, for example, in cases where there is an IV fluid being pumped.

The pump offers other advantages as well. For example, because the inside of the pump is dry, there is less of a need to worry about having to protect the pump from moisture. The moisture stays inside the tube. Therefore, because less waterproofing is needed the peristaltic pump is often cheaper to manufacture when compared to a liquid pump.

The tubing must also be capable of meeting a couple of different requirements. First, the type of liquid should not be as corrosive to the tubing material. This is very important to prevent damage from occurring to the inside of the pump housing. The second consideration is that the tubing must be flexible or durable enough to handle the constant repetition of being compressed, perhaps thousands of time in an hour.

Due to the sterility issue, the peristaltic pump finds itself most useful in the medical environment. It can be used in dialysis machines, heart-pumping machines, and IV machines. In addition to this, it can also be used for liquids meant for consumption. The cost of a pump can vary widely depending on the application and the power source involved.